VM2500 Blank Panel Module 1001 VM2500 Dual Envelope Generator Module 1003 VM2500 Oscillator Module 1004-P VM2500 Oscillator Module 1004-R VM2500 Oscillator Module 1004-T VM2500 Modamp Module 1005 VM2500 Filtamp Module 1006 VM2500 Dual Noise/Random Voltage Generator Module 1016 VM2500 Oscilloscope Module 1019 VM2500 Dual Oscillator Module 1023 VM2500 Dual Reverberator Module 1025 VM2500 Preset Voltage Module 1026 VM2500 Clocked Sequential Control Module 1027 VM2500 Dual Envelope Generator Module 1033 VM2500 Sample & Hold Module 1036 VM2500 Triple VCA Module 1042 VM2500 Synthesizer Voice Module 1045 VM2500 Quad Envelope Generator Module 1046 VM2500 Multimode Filter Resonator Module 1047 VM2500 Mix-Sequencer Module 1050 VM2500 Dual Four-Channel Mixer Module 1051 VM901 Voltage Controlled Oscillator VM902 Amplifier VM903 Random Signal Generator VM905 Reverb VM907A Fixed Filter Bank VM911-A Dual Trigger Delay VM912 Envelope Follower VM921 Voltage Controlled Oscillator VM923 Filters/Noise VM927 Multiple VM958 Keyboard/VCO Interface VM960 Sequencer VM962 Sequential Switch VM984 Four-Channel Matrix Mixer VM995 Attenuators VM914 Fixed Filter Bank VM928 Sample Hold VM1630 Frequency Shifter VM901ABBB Voltage Controlled Oscillator VM904A/B/C Filters VM911 Envelope Generator VM921ABBB Oscillator Bank VM Rackmode 10 Band Graphic EQ VM Rackmode 12 Stage Phaser VM Rackmode 3 Band Parametric EQ VM Rackmode Poly Vocal Source Oscillator VM Rackmode Ring Modulator VM Rackmode String Filter VM Rackmode Vocal Source Oscillator VM Rackmode Frequency Shifter VM Rackmode 16 Channel Vocoder VM Miniverse A-440 VM Miniverse Contour VM Miniverse Filter VM Miniverse Glide VM Miniverse Mixer VM Miniverse Noise VM Miniverse Oscillator VM Miniverse Poly Contour VM Miniverse Poly Filter VM Miniverse Poly Glide VM Miniverse Poly Mixer VM Miniverse Poly Oscillator VM Miniverse Poly VCA VM Miniverse VCA

The 1046 is an ADSR envelope generator with four fully independent envelopes. It functions exactly like the original 2500 version and is essentially a 1003 and a 1033 envelope generator in a single module. If you're not familiar with the operation of envelope generators, here's an overview:

When a gate voltage is sent to the Gate In jack (or the Gate button is held), the envelope generator outputs a voltage that changes dynamically according to the settings of its four stages.

The Attack stage defines how long it takes for the output voltage to rise from 0 to 5 volts. Once the attack stage reaches 5V, it moves to the Initial Decay phase, which defines how long it takes to fall from 5V to the setting of the Sustain phase. Unlike the Attack, Initial Decay, and Final Decay phases, each of which define a time, Sustain Level simply sets the held voltage level following the Attack and Initial Decay phases - this usually equates to the envelope output level while holding down a key on a keyboard controller. The Final Decay Time knob defines the the length of time it takes for the voltage to fall back to 0V when the gate input voltage is removed (typically when you let go of a key on a keyboard controller).

The second and fourth envelopes add a Gate Delay stage that defines how long the envelope waits between receiving a gate/trigger CV and initiating the Attack stage - their diagram looks like this:

Inputs, Outputs, and Controls

As the "quad" in its name implies, the 1046 module contains four envelope generators, with independent controls, inputs, and outputs.

Gate input jack- This is where you'll patch gate voltages to initiate the envelope generator cycle. Most often this will come from the IO Panel Gate output.

Trigger input jack- This is where you'll patch trigger voltages to reset the envelope generator cycle. This can originate from the IO Panel Trig output, a sequencer, or other modules.

"What's the difference between a gate and a trigger?"

  • A gate is a constant voltage. If you're playing a keyboard, it remains high (i.e. +5V) as long as the key is held down. 

  • A trigger is a rapid spike of +5V. It's useful for a number of things (like turning stuff on and off, triggering "one-shot" drum sounds or modules, or restarting the 1046 envelope).

Gate indicator lamp- Illuminates to show an incoming gate voltage of > 1V has initiated the envelope.

Gate Delay- Adds a "pause" of up to three seconds prior to the initiating the attack phase. Removal of a gate signal during the delay cancels the envelope and resets the delay timer.

Attack Time- Defines the length of time for voltage to rise from 0V to 5V when the gate voltage is applied.

Initial Decay Time- Defines the length of time for voltage to fall from the Attack Time stage 5V peak to Sustain Level setting.

Sustain Level- Sets the held voltage level following Attack Time and Initial Decay Time phases.

Final Decay Time- Defines the length of time for voltage to fall from Sustain Level to 0V when gate is released. This is called Release on just about every synthesizer on the planet.

Trigger Modes switch- In a situation where a note is already held down (gate input is high), these regulate whether or not the envelope retriggers when a new note is played. When set to Single, new notes will not retrigger the envelope; when set to Multiple the envelope retriggers every time a new note is played, regardless of previously held notes.



Unlike most envelope generators, both the Gate and Trigger CV inputs must be connected, or else the 1046 will behave a little strangely.
It's important to remember that the 2500 modules were designed during the infancy of analog synthesizer development, so they don't always work exactly like their modern counterparts.

If Voltage Modular's IO Panel Trig CV output isn't connected to a Trigger CV input, it will work fine in Single mode, but Multiple trigger mode will not work correctly (the Attack Time control won't do anything, and the Initial Decay Time knob will behave as the Attack Time control).

For correct envelope and triggering behavior:

  • Set the Voltage IO Panel Single/Multi selector to Single.

  • Patch the IO Panel Gate and Trig CV outputs to the 1046 Gate and Trigger CV inputs, respectively.

Because the Trigger CV input restarts the envelope from the attack phase, the Gate and Trigger CV inputs can be combined for interesting rhythmic effects. For example, a note could be held with the keyboard (via the IO Panel Gate CV out) while retriggering from a sequencer for emphasis on particular beats.

It should go without saying that you won't hurt anything if you hook it up "wrong," but the envelope generator may not behave as expected.

Normal/Inverted out- These are the envelope voltage outputs. The standard jack (icon going up from centerline) outputs voltage ranges from 0V to +5V, whereas the inverted jack ((icon going down from centerline) is inverted, with output ranging from 0V to -5V. Envelopes one and three are positive output only; envelopes two and four have positive and inverted outputs.